Salon has published this extremely upsetting article on torture guidelines developed by the CIA. The information comes from CIA documents that were made public last year. But it is only recently that anyone has combed through them to find information about torture techniques. They include detailed instructions on how to waterboard – i.e., partially drown prisoners by repeatedly dunking them in water – which states that a special saline solution can be used to allow greater amounts of water to be forced into a prisoner (if unsalty water is used, the prisoner may die from lack of sodium in the blood, as their blood becomes diluted from the amount of water they are forced to swallow), and recommends that prisoners be kept on a liquid diet prior to waterboarding, so that if they vomit (a probable occurrence during this form of torture), they will be less likely to die from inhaling their own vomit. The CIA documents also contain instructions for other torture techniques such as keeping someone awake for days at a time by bolting their arms above their heads (the documents suggest keeping the prisoners in nappies during this time), slamming a prisoner into a wall, cramming them into a little box, and using ‘stress’ positions, i.e., bending their bodies into uncomfortable positions, and restraining them there.